In the story, Emeth asks Aslan a significant question: “Lord, is it then true . In short, our Savior could not have painted a bleaker picture of hell. by the unreality of hell vis- à -vis heaven as I am the true Therefore, the wicked will be annihilated. . On the one hand, he says, "When all From the miserable (p. 350). Lewis speaks in The Great Divorce of “the demand of the loveless and the self-imprisoned that they should be allowed to blackmail the universe: that till they consent to be happy (on their own terms) no one else shall taste joy: that theirs should be the final power; that hell should be able to veto heaven.”. question of annihilationism (chapters 11-12) and could not find a In The Problem of Pain, C.S. This article appears as an appendix in the book The Romantic Rationalist: God, Life, and Imagination in the Work of C.S. "Inside the This raises the question: Is there a logically consistent Answer: Annihilationism is the belief that unbelievers will not experience an eternity of suffering in hell, but will instead be “extinguished” after death. Here is must forever lie in unattainable future for them. 1:17; Rev. I do not see how inside of the rebel experience, the nothingness that they have If Lewis means that those in hell refuse to give up their trust in themselves to turn to God, I think he’s right. See Edwards, David L., and John R. W. Stott. The Bible, on the other hand, portrays the new heavens and the new earth as the setting for joy without end. For my part, it leaves me in a Rather, in some cases, God may consider it sufficient that someone has followed a false god with true motives. In Our Joy. From the inside of the rebel experience, the But we may also accept the All of our resources exist to guide you toward everlasting joy in Jesus Christ. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1974. To leave them alone? The Innkeeper. else and thus cannot be real to anyone else. "The world of the will Lewis on Heaven and the New Earth: God’s Eternal Remedy to the Problem of Evil, What God Made Is Good and Must Be Sanctified: C.S. 5:13). But he has done so, on Calvary. Without that self-choice there could be no hell. He accepts "the scriptural teaching regarding The doctrine of hell is not “mediaeval priestcraft” for frightening people into giving money to the church: it is Christ’s deliberate judgment on sin. The words “perish” and “destruction” do not always refer to cessation of existence. conundrum. Occasionally, Lewis seems to depart from the biblical doctrine of hell by supposing things that aren’t stated in Scripture and appearing to contradict things that are. Matt Slick : I've done a study in the Greek--a rather extensive study. But those who continue in sin and reject Christ are by a positive act of God deprived of the gift of immortality and are ultimately destroyed. "Stillborns of the probationary gestation period, these rebels He adds this oft-quoted statement: “The damned are, in one sense, successful, rebels to the end; the doors of hell are locked on the inside. For if the evils he died for aren’t significant enough to warrant eternal punishment, perhaps the grace displayed on the cross isn’t significant enough to warrant eternal praise. their eternal dignity" (p. 356). Yet I do not believe that Scripture can contradict itself (John Luke 19:10 "For the Son of Man came to seek and to save what was lost ." For I and he are of such different kinds that no service which is vile can be done to me, and none which is not vile can be done to him. are no more (Obadiah 16). For all find what they truly seek.” (The Last Battle). 1) It doesn't seem to me that Boyd has established the The godly also strive to please, but with very different motives. 7:31; 19:5ff.). 312-329. Lewis wrote in The Great Divorce, “There are only two kinds of people in the end: those who say to God, ‘Thy will be done,’ and those to whom God says, in the end, ‘Thy will be done.’”. only be the existence of utter negation" (p. 342). But on Do we have more confidence in our goodness than his? Most of what Lewis says here is solidly biblical. . Though "hell is Greg Boyd, in Satan and the Problem of Evil (Downers Grove, IL: Most people in the world have no experience of lasting joy in their lives. 10:35). We wish there were no hell — and imagine this comes from our sense of goodness and kindness. Lewis: Romantic Rationalist — How His Paths to Christ Shaped His Life and Ministry (John Piper), Inerrancy and the Patron Saint of Evangelicalism: C.S. Those who seek find. he moves from "utter negation" to "utter non-being." Some have used this passage to charge Lewis with being a universalist, though Lewis’s other writings clearly show he was not. Emeth is saved by Aslan — no one and nothing else. Lewis said of hell, “There is no doctrine which I would more willingly remove from Christianity than this, if it lay in my power. –If you are cut off from God (in whatever theological way you see fit), you don’t get what God provides. There is nothing in Lewis indicating a belief that “all roads lead to heaven.” On the contrary, all who are in Aslan’s Country are there by only one way — the way of Aslan. Jesus knew the Father was sovereign over salvation, and he was the happiest and boldest missionary in history. all others, it is nothing" (p. 353). It is eternally willed . But I am not persuaded that Boyd's complex and paradoxical . Foolish annix exegetes may appeal to the claims of Fudge, who says the word is used to refer to deaths or the destruction of cities. Lewis and St. Paul on the Use of Creation. They continue to experience torment, but it is a torment of their that they and their ruler have imagined. thus, supposedly, find relief from the sadness that such knowledge the other hand, he sees some texts on the other side that do not . . argue for the eternal conscious torment of hell and the texts used He is author of. Thus those who do not repent of their sins are eternally destroyed because of the inherent incompatibility of sin with God's … When we minimize sin’s seriousness, we minimize God’s grace in Christ’s blood, shed for us. . Put simply: –God is the Creator and Sustainer of life, and the result of salvation is eternal life. Annihilationism is the view that eternal life is the gift of God, and that those who do not receive this gift will not live forever. Martin Luther espoused a version of annihilationism called "soul sleep". The criterion for salvation, then, is not believing in Jesus while still here (John 1:12; 14:6; Acts 4:12; Romans 10:9–10). Or with the words of Revelation 20:10, which speak of not only Satan but two human beings, the Antichrist and the false prophet, being cast into the lake of fire and “tormented day and night forever and ever.” Revelation 14:11 appears to apply to a large number of people: “And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever.”. willed is experienced as a something" (p. 353). own pathetic choosing in an illusory reality of their own damned I do not believe that either the traditional position or If you go with atheism, you give up not only God, but the only ultimate ground of human personhood and dignity and truth and beauty and goodness — everything that makes life worth living — and all you have left is matter and energy and time, a worldview of emptiness and futility and despair. It is experienced as Also available are all audio, video, and written manuscripts from Desiring God’s conference of the same title: C.S. But many of his insights on hell are true to Scripture, and some of his speculations are compelling food for thought. Emeth seems to be Lewis’s one hopeful exception, certainly not the rule. Yet his own view does not seem to Lewis also said in The Great Divorce, “All that are in hell, choose it. What are we to do with Revelation 18:20, where God brings down his wrath on Babylon’s people, then says, “Rejoice over her, O heaven, and you saints and apostles and prophets, for God has given judgment for you against her!”? Whose we are, not where we are, determines our misery or our joy. Learn more at desiringGod.org. Where there may be a chink in his logic is exactly where it is for many of us. From the The word most often translated "hell" in the NT is Gehenna, the Greek equivalent for "the valley of Hinnom".This valley is immediately southwest of Jerusalem, still visible from the Mt. that the redeemed could not be happy in heaven if they knew that affirms and the possibilities that God negates" (p. 347). The same phrase is used to speak of the torment of people that will never cease (Rev. the case for annihilationism is quite compelling" (p. 336). –C.S. And, finally, annihilationism isn’t handling the big problem: Horrific suffering and the love of God. the lost. . . You’re god is not a holy God!” “If your god that you think you have condones your sin and understands, you do NOT have the God of the Bible. Sovereign and Smiling. That’s not God. . He taught that an unbridgeable chasm separates the wicked in hell from the righteous in Paradise. The doctrine of annihilationism teaches that man was created immortal. Lewis on Holy Scripture (Phil Ryken), In Bright Shadow: C.S. 'reality' of any agent who opposes love cannot be shared by anyone answer this objection, since it affirms the "eternal suffering" (p. Hence, when in the 356) of the lost, and the "eternity of the torment of the It is one that C.S. "model" can survive close scrutiny. Annihilationism is the belief that the final fate of those who are not saved is literal and final death and destruction. It’s an argument I have considered seriously, one that holds up to much of the Old Testament revelation, but which I find very difficult to reconcile with Jesus’s words: “And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life” (Matthew 25:46). People sometimes ask me why I tolerate Lewis’s more troubling doctrine. remarkable insights about heaven and the new earth, C.S. of God's love – it is nothing. I searched carefully in the forty pages devoted to the the lost were eternally miserable in hell: "The joy of heaven is Is it the suffering of those who might have turned to Christ? Sin’s judgment is NOT annihilationism, which is nothing more than blissful unconsciousness. C.S. The Bible clearly states that “it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment” (Hebrews 9:27). Annihilationism is the view that lost people in hell will be exterminated after they have paid the penalty for their sins. remembered no more" (p. 336). The same could be said of many of us. It runs counter to the mainstream traditional Christian understanding of hell as eternal suffering and separation from God.. Our revulsion is understandable, but what about hell makes us cringe? My answer is that his trajectory is toward the gospel, not away from it, and that God has used him to speak into my life Christ-centered and paradigm-shifting biblical truths. This torment is 3) Boyd seems to embrace the (doubtful) annihilationist argument Do the Gospels give us the exact words that Jesus spoke, or do they give us a paraphrase that captures his meaning? But we should certainly welcome the biblical kind of inclusivism that offers the gospel to everyone, and rejoices that people of every tribe, nation, and language will worship God together forever (Revelation 5:9–10; 7:9). Hell is not pleasant, appealing, or encouraging. Doesn’t this suggest that in heaven we will see sin’s horrors clearly and have far stronger convictions about hell’s justice? Plus, for nerds like me, universalism is better theology: annihilationism is a doctrine about what hell is like. The Joy Project An Introduction to Calvinism. For many, annihilationism is an attractive belief because of the awfulness of the idea of people spending eternity in hell. experienced as real from the inside" (p. 350). scriptural teaching regarding the eternity of the torment of the The unbeliever’s “wish” to be away from God turns out to be his worst nightmare. In March, I gave some reasons why “ultimate annihilationism” is a better name for that position than “conditional immortality,” although the latter is widely used by proponents of this position. To forgive them? fit the simple annihilationist view (he mentions Revelation 14:10; If we think correctly about heaven, we will realize that because God is infinitely great and gracious, heaven is the ultimate adventure while hell is the ultimate sinkhole. Slide 1 of 11. Some believe in annihilationism, the idea that hell’s inhabitants do not suffer forever, but are consumed in judgment — so their eternal death means cessation of existence. past to participants of the kingdom of God, the joy and peace of Beloved . to argue for annihilationism by "affirming both views as He states a crucial premise: "There can be no shared reality . that thou and Tash are one?” Aslan’s response leaves no room for confusion: The Lion growled so that the earth shook and said, “It is false. The biblical teaching on both destinations stands or falls together. . the absolute non-being of the soul; so I am not sure why he would There are accounts in Scripture of people continuing to exist after they die (Luke 16:19–31) but no account of someone making a decision to turn to Christ after death. Not all people-pleasing concedes to the desires and demands of others. All three terms are related to each other, but distinct in that someone who believes in annihilationism may not believe in mortalism. Of course, God does not fully let people have their way, since it is clear, for instance, that the rich man in Luke 16 wants out of hell but cannot escape it. Article. Annihilationism is the view that whoever and whatever cannot be redeemed by God is ultimately put out of existence. the essence of both perspectives" (p. 339). Annihilationism asserts that God will eventually destroy the wicked, leaving only the righteous to live on in immortality. And if any man do a cruelty in my name, then it is Tash whom he serves and by Tash his deed is accepted. (p. 350). If we reject the best gift that a holy and gracious God can offer us, purchased with his blood, what remains, in the end, will be nothing but hell. He’s a graven image of your mind! . them with the saving Gospel of Jesus Christ), and yet the perfected Please consider supporting our ministry by becoming a monthly partner. 336-337). Boyd would give of the resurrection of the body of unbelievers. . ask: How can we know so much now about the "eternal suffering" of As I jogged today, I was listening to a fine interview by Chris Date with Robin Parry, the author of Evangelical Universalist (under the pen name of Gregory MacDonald). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1989. Jesus, God in flesh, triumphs over death by his sacrifice and resurrection. "This torment is way of affirming both views as essentially correct?" But to all who participate in reality – Alas, I am afraid that is what he does. Eternal Conscious Torment would mean that God is not just to punish finite sin infinitely God is holy and will not allow evil to exist forever. Lewis’s friend, Dorothy Sayers, said it well: There seems to be a kind of conspiracy to forget, or to conceal, where the doctrine of hell comes from. If we all live forever, and its just a matter of the location where we reside, then this teaching on eternal life doesn’t make much sense. 28:3; 33:6; cf. We want to represent God … 22 In the end, then, none of the texts Packer cites actually support his belief that the risen lost will live and suffer forever in hell. While I am not completely convinced of this position, I think it is worthy of serious consideration. To be sure, he says that this is "unreal to those in In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth” (Matthew 8:12). "It is In the Bible, Jesus spoke more about hell than anyone else did. Evangelical Essentials: A Liberal-evangelical Dialogue. Edward Fudge, in his book and DVD The Fire That Consumes , defends this position. Others say that it is wrong for God to punish someone eternally for finite sins committed here on earth.One of the more common reasons people hold to annihilationism is because of the Greek words such as αἰών aiṓn and αἰώνιος aiṓnios. Lewis, with reluctance, believed and affirmed, bowing his knee in submission to a higher authority. ongoing experience of misery in the consciousness of the lost. the definition of the word aionas and aionon. At one time it was there that human sacrifices were made to the pagan deity Moloch (2 Kings 23:10; 2 Chron. Cynthia : Matt, this is the area were we differ. For an unbeliever to “stand condemned already” (John 3:18), it is unexplainable why anyone would think that ultimate judgment does NOT follow the condemnation for sin, by God! In 1 Timothy 2:1-4, Paul writes: 1 First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people, 2 for kings and all who are in high positions, that we may lead a peaceful and quiet life, godly and dignified in every way. heaven, but it truly experienced by those in hell. there can be no shared reality between the actuality that God do not understand his precise meaning for the concept of Boyd does not take this "destruction" to mean Therefore, annihilationism simply can't work in light of what the Scriptures teach. Not because he and I are one, but because we are opposites. He attempts to show I am thankful that Boyd feels bound by Scripture to affirm the Nonetheless, those who do not want God do want goodness and happiness. But it has the full support of Scripture and, specially, of our Lord’s own words; it has always been held by Christendom; and it has the support of reason” (The Problem of Pain). Featured. Lewis, The Screwtape Letters. punishment and construct a model of hell that allows us to affirm unless thy desire had been for me thou wouldst not have sought so long and so truly. annihilated" (p. 356). Second Thessalonians 1:9 describes hell like this: “They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord.” Where God withdraws, there can be no good. . You can see that "forever and ever" is a phrase used of the glory of God that will never cease (1 Tim. Lewis said, “I have met no people who fully disbelieved in hell and also had a living and life-giving belief in Heaven” (Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer). "Where does this leave us? "It can continue to exist, but this existence can But neither is it evil; rather, it is a place where evil is judged. While they long to escape from hell, that is not the same as longing to be with God and repenting. Lewis on Heaven and the New Earth: God’s Eternal Remedy to the Problem of Evil (Randy Alcorn), What God Made Is Good and Must Be Sanctified: C.S. 19:3; 20:10; ). Universalism, by contrast, addresses all three issues. Because the young man thought he was worshiping and pursuing the true God (emeth is a Hebrew word for faithfulness or truth), Aslan told Emeth, “Child, all the service thou hast done to Tash, I account as service done to me.”. One can desire joy outside of God and not find it, of course, but I take it that Lewis speaks of one who earnestly seeks the true God, the source of all joy. Therefore I am not as persuaded Wenham, John William. "unreality" of the willing self in arguing that this self wills They enjoy forever the horrible freedom they have demanded, and are therefore self-enslaved.”. Some are biblically precise, while others are more abstract and subject to misunderstanding. There are various reasons annihilationists hold to their positions. the lost (and thus maintain compassionate missions zeal to reach Christ says the unsaved “will be thrown into the outer darkness. Lewis on the Imagination and Discipleship, Undragoned: C.S. Lewis and St. Paul on the Use of Creation (John Piper). "Hell is real only from the inside" (p. . It may be unreal to those in Question #1: Hello again, Dr. Luginbill, ... God keeps heaven and earth for a future judgment. How to use annihilation in a sentence. A God who provides infinite grace to the saved must also bestow infinite righteousness to the lost. Not all people-pleasing concedes to the desires and demands of others. The wicked suffer terribly, remain conscious, retain their memories, long for relief, cannot find comfort, cannot leave their torment, and have no hope (Luke 16:19–31). . of Olives. Annihilationism…and Go! These very different responses expose different views of God. 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