30 as quoted in Edmond C. Gruss, Martin, W., & Klann, N., Jehovah of the Watchtower, (Minneapolis: Bethany, 1974 161), Hoekema, A., The Four Major Cults (Exeter: Paternoster, 1963) 208-9. [121] Their living expenses and those of other full-time volunteers are covered by the organization along with a basic monthly stipend. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, 'max': 3, [125] New elders are appointed by a traveling overseer after recommendation by the existing body of elders. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, They consider the use of God's name vital for proper worship. userIds: [{ 212-213). ", "Flag Salute, Voting, and Civilian Service", "7. [64], Rutherford centralized organizational control of the Watch Tower Society. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, It was announced that, starting in September 2014, appointments would be made by traveling overseers. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, [110] Witnesses do not use elder as a title to signify a formal clergy-laity division,[126] though elders may employ ecclesiastical privilege regarding confession of sins. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, [87] Knorr's presidency was also marked by an increasing use of explicit instructions guiding Witnesses in their lifestyle and conduct, and a greater use of congregational judicial procedures to enforce a strict moral code. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, var pbHdSlots = [ "[400], Jehovah's Witnesses have been accused of having policies and culture that help to conceal cases of sexual abuse within the organization. var pbjs = pbjs || {}; [340], Several cases involving Jehovah's Witnesses have been heard by Supreme Courts throughout the world. [187] His role as a mediator (referred to in 1 Timothy 2:5) is applied to the 'anointed' class, though the 'other sheep' are said to also benefit from the arrangement.[188]. [350][351][352][353] It also warns members to "avoid independent thinking", claiming such thinking "was introduced by Satan the Devil"[354][355] and would "cause division". initAdSlotRefresher(); [141][142] Publications are also available online at the organization's official website. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pc", "dictionary"); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, var mapping_rightslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [117][118] At the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Watch Tower Society, the "faithful and discreet slave" was defined as referring to the Governing Body only. name: "pbjs-unifiedid", ", "Do You Contribute to an Accurate Report? var mapping_rightslot2 = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); pbjs.setConfig(pbjsCfg); [138][143] The organization reported for the same year that it "spent over $70.9 million in caring for special pioneers, missionaries, and traveling overseers in their field service assignments. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '541042770', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, [233][234] They are instructed to devote as much time as possible to their ministry and are required to submit an individual monthly "Field Service Report". { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, [194] Jehovah's Witnesses believe that humanity is in a sinful state,[194] from which release is only possible by means of Jesus' shed blood as a ransom, or atonement, for the sins of humankind. [244] Drinking of alcoholic beverages is permitted in moderation. [373][374][375][376][377] Critics of the group such as Edmund C. Gruss,[378] and Christian writers such as Ray C. Stedman,[379] Walter Martin, Norman Klann[380] and Anthony Hoekema[381] state that the New World Translation exhibits scholastic dishonesty. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_c", ["people_society_religion"]); },{ Not so fast. We worship the one true and Almighty God, the Creator, whose name is Jehovah. [183] Jesus served as a redeemer and a ransom sacrifice to pay for the sins of humanity. name: "pubCommonId", "Трудные страницы истории Молдовы (1940–1950)". { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Whalen, Harrison and Schnell have suggested Rutherford invited and cultivated opposition for publicity purposes in a bid to attract dispossessed members of society, and to convince members that persecution from the outside world was evidence of the truth of their struggle to serve God. Knorr commissioned a new translation of the Bible, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, the full version of which was released in 1961. var googletag = googletag || {}; Disfellowshipping, a form of shunning, is the strongest form of discipline, administered to an offender deemed unrepentant. }; iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/jehovah-s-witness"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, In 1919, he instituted the appointment of a director in each congregation, and a year later all members were instructed to report their weekly preaching activity to the Brooklyn headquarters. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; The expression “Hallelujah,” which occurs 24 times in the Hebrew Scriptures, literally is a command to a number of people to “praise Jah” - a poetic shortened form of 'Jehovah', the name of the Most High God. [227] The objective is to start a regular "Bible study" with any person who is not already a member,[228] with the intention that the student be baptized as a member of the group;[229][230] Witnesses are advised to consider discontinuing Bible studies with students who show no interest in becoming members. [277][278], Jehovah's Witnesses believe their highest allegiance belongs to God's kingdom, which is viewed as an actual government in heaven, with Christ as king. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, [7][8] They believe that the destruction of the present world system at Armageddon is imminent, and that the establishment of God's kingdom over the earth is the only solution for all problems faced by humanity. addPrebidAdUnits(pbAdUnits); [140] Translation of Witness publications is done by over 2,000 volunteers worldwide, producing literature in 1,000 languages. [181][182], Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Jesus is God's only direct creation, that everything else was created through Christ by means of God's power, and that the initial unassisted act of creation uniquely identifies Jesus as God's "only-begotten Son". Twice each year, Witnesses from a number of congregations that form a "circuit" gather for a one-day assembly. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, [55], In January 1917, the Watch Tower Society's legal representative, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, was elected as its next president. Трудные страницы истории Молдовы ( 1940–1950 ) '' September 2014, appointments would be made traveling! Was announced that, starting in September 2014, appointments would be made by traveling overseers an interest politics. Have critics examination of the thousand years, Christ will hand all authority back to God that was... 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