Land in the polders was state-owned during the entire developmental process. Land reclamation by irrigation is, however, not limited to desert regions. Its main purposes are to improve flood protection and create additional land for agriculture. This caused the Dutch to lose 1/3 (65%) of their land underwater. CDR approaches land reclamation schemes in such a way that impact on the maritime environment is minimised, while proving new space to live, work and leisure. The town of Kuinre was cut off from the open water, losing businesses and status. This usually happens when there isn't enough space to build The grids are offset: the larger feeder canals are offset by approximately one kilometer from the larger roads. Water control boards are the independent local government bodies responsible for maintaining this system. A polder is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes. A grid of canals parallels the grid of roads in the Beemster. Much of the land irrigated in humid areas throughout the world is used for the production of paddy rice, although irrigation of vegetable crops, usually with overhead sprinkler systems, also is practised on a considerable acreage. The southwest side of the lake that begins where the IJ once emptied into the Zuiderzee is known as the IJmeer. In the closing days of World War II, the Nazis detonated explosives severely damaging the Wieringermeer dike. Land reclamation for development activities (infrastructure, industrial, recreation, and tourism) often results an adverse impact on mudflats, mangroves, and fish stocks in WCPM. Test drilling by the Zuiderzeevereeniging found that about three quarters of the Zuiderzee would be useful land. As a consequence, they were somewhat higher. As with dike building, polder construction was tested on a small scale at the experimental polder at Andijk. The project involved the damming of the Zuiderzee, a large, shallow inlet of the North Sea, and the reclamation of land in the newly enclosed water using polders. Land reclamation in Holland with help of Marshall Plan Funds - NARA - 541707.tif 2,000 × 1,324; 2.55 MB Netherlands. The government started developing official plans to enclose the Zuiderzee. The original post-war designs had called for a 410 km² polder, yet many different proposals were later put forth in an effort to combine the benefits of both the Markerwaard and Markermeer, all to no avail. Land reclamation schemes are complex due to the social, economic, environmental, but moreover spatial impacts – shaping the coastline comes with responsibilities. The Zuiderzee Works is a man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century. Introduction Land reclamation has been and still is one of the most interesting aspects of engineering in The Netherlands, where about 60% of the surface of the country is at or below sea level. Candidates were put through a selection process before receiving their own pieces of new land. The 1953 flood disaster prompted a new approach to the design of dikes and other water-retaining structures, based on an acceptable probability of overflowing. A small test polder of some 0.4 km2 was constructed in 1926–1927 near Andijk in North Holland to research the effects drainage would have on the soil of the Zuiderzee and how best to configure the new polders. This resulted into creation of polders. [6]. Crossref. The Afsluitdijk is a major dam and causeway in the Netherlands. The dike, with a length of 2.5 km, was built between 1920 and 1924. About half the total surface area of polders in north-west Europe is in the Netherlands. After damming off the sea, the next step involved creating new land, known as polders. As a result of flooding disasters, water boards called waterschap (when situated more inland) or hoogheemraadschap (near the sea, mainly used in the Holland region) [7] were set up to maintain the integrity of the water defences around polders, maintain the waterways inside a polder, and control the various water levels inside and outside the polder. It progressed until the North Sea flood of 1953 struck the south-western Netherlands. Get Land Reclamation in the Netherlands essential facts below. [6] [ unreliable source? ] Experience showed that till, rather than just sand or clay, was the best primary material for a structure like the Afsluitdijk. In 1945 retreating Germans ordered the inundation of the Wieringermeer, but it was drained again afterwards and the damage repaired.[2]. It used 23 million m³ of sand and 13.5 million m³ of till. By 1961 6,800 square miles (18,000 km2), about half of the country's land, was reclaimed from the sea. Amsterdam is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands, with a population of 866,737 within the city proper, 1,380,872 in the urban area, and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. The stations, completed in February 1930, managed to drain the polder after six months of continuous pumping. The IJsselmeer, also known as Lake Ijssel in English, is a closed off inland bay in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland. Dutch water boards are regional government bodies charged with managing water barriers, waterways, water levels, water quality and sewage treatment in their respective regions. Changing agricultural needs and increased motorised mobility meant many farming villages were unnecessary and the number of towns was eventually reduced to two. The Dutch people inhabiting the region had at first built primitive dikes to protect their settlements from the sea. (5mks) Construction started on the 18 km dike from Den Oever on Wieringen and the new construction-island of Oude Zeug and progressed satisfactorily. [10]. Starting in early 1959, this was finished in October 1967. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Suriname, Guyana, Curaçao, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United States. The North Sea flood of 1953 made the government change its priorities. The community of Urk in particular has remained an entity somewhat distinct from the "mainland". Work on the village of Larsen was just about to start when it was cancelled. Local governance presented a new problem. Today land reclamation is normally carried out to increase ports and The fens in the UK, once marshland, now mostly rural agricultural land. The Markermeer is a 700 km2 (270 sq mi) lake in the central Netherlands in between North Holland, Flevoland and its larger sibling, the IJsselmeer. The former islands of Urk and Schokland, Wieringen got connected to the mainland. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. The Netherlands has a coastline that is constantly changing with erosion caused by wind and water. Many of the current land reclamations have been done as a part of the Zuiderzee Works after 1918. Different power systems were used in the stations as a safety mechanism. It was to be 32 km long and 90 meters wide, rising to 7.25 meters above sea-level, with an incline of 25% on each side. Whether the last two of these count as true land reclamation is open to debate. This process took years, but once finished allowed planting other crops. The seventeenth century saw early proposals to tame and enclose the Zuiderzee, but the ambitious ideas were impractical given the technology then available. After the new municipalities of Southern Flevoland were established in 1984, belonging to no province as was the case with Lelystad, the provincial issue required renewed attention. The city, built on reclaimed land, was founded in 1967 and was named after Cornelis Lely, who engineered the Afsluitdijk, making the reclamation possible. Wieringermeer is a former municipality and a polder in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early date. The Zuiderzee Works (Dutch: Zuiderzeewerken) is a man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century. Finally, in 2003, it was decided not to build this polder. These had been considered major obstacles to completing the dam but proved not to be so. The Dutch and their ancestors have been working to hold back and reclaim land from the … In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. This city, located in the centre of the reclaimed lands, was developed as Lelystad (1966), named after the man who had played a crucial role in the design and realisation of the Zuiderzee Works. In 1936 work started on a large land reclamation project; the Noordoostpolder. It can be sand or cement. Recently, land reclamation took place in the Netherlands because there were too many floods entering the land. Boston, Chicago. Water boards hold separate elections, levy taxes, and function independently from other government bodies. (4mks) (b) Five ways through which land is being reclaimed. The Delta Works is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea. The first settlements were Ens, Marknesse and Kraggenburg (1949), followed by Luttelgeest (1950), Bant (1951), then Creil and Rutten (1953), and finally Espel, Tollebeek, and Nagele (1956). It was an area much used by the Dutch Underground resistance during World War II, as the fresh polder offered numerous hiding places. The more floods that entered the land caused more damage because of land drainage, natural disaster (sea level rise), and the land was covered by clay soil. The resulting dehydration caused the former seabed to sink by over a metre in some places. The need for new agricultural land had mostly disappeared by this time and extra space for housing was unnecessary in this region. Land reclamation requires heavy construction work, bulldozers, scrapers, excavators, continuous operation digging machines, concrete pourers etc. It is located in the centre of the country, where the former Zuiderzee was. - The work of reclaiming land was done under 2 main projects namely: It still needed to be brought up to its full height, and a road linking Friesland and North Holland remained to be built. Improve water management by creating a freshwater lake from the former uncontrolled salt water inlet. It would have had an area of nearly 600 km2. The polder contains two former islands: the glacial moraine hill of Urk, and the elongated strip of peat land known as Schokland, largely abandoned in the 19th century. The Dutch have a long history of reclamation of marshes and fenland, resulting in some 3,000 polders [5] nationwide. - Most of coastal land has been reclaimed from the sea. River dikes prevent flooding from water flowing into the country by the major rivers Rhine and Meuse, while a complicated system of drainage ditches, canals, and pumping stations keep the low-lying parts dry for habitation and agriculture. The pumping stations started draining the polder that same day, completing the task in June 1957. The Markerwaard is the name of a proposed, but never built, polder adjoining the IJsselmeer in the central Netherlands. Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North" due to its large number of canals which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The goals of the Act were threefold: Unlike earlier proposals the act intended to preserve part of the Zuiderzee and create large islands, as Lely warned that rerouting the rivers directly to the North Sea might cause inland flooding if storms raised the sea's level. As early as in the fourteenth century, the first reclaimed area had been completed. For instance, Amsterdam and Rotterdam were expanding in this manner. The Netherlands has a coastline that is constantly changing with erosion caused by wind and water. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. A new province, Flevoland, was created out of the Noordoostpolder and the Flevolands in 1986, thereby completing the Works. Machines, sometimes made specifically for the Zuiderzee Works, were increasingly used for this and the final polders. This is illustrated by the saying: "God created the world, but the Dutch created the Netherlands" [4]. Netherlands, country located in northwestern Europe, also known as Holland. Beemster[ˈbeːmstər](listen) is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. By 2005 it had 70,000 residents. These last three were incorporated into the new municipality of Dronten on January 1, 1972. Land reclamation is like making artificial land. Markerwaard was expected to be finished in 1978. Rotterdam is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. The project involved the damming of the Zuiderzee, a large, shallow inlet of the North Sea, and the reclamation of land in the newly enclosed water using polders. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location. That meant the tidal currents of the Zuiderzee were still present. The Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission takes us over part of the Dutch province of Flevoland – the newest province in the Netherlands and one of the largest land reclamation projects in the world. Urk was then and is still today a fishing community and it served as a natural construction-island for both dikes as well as a base of operations for the later exploitation of the polder. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. It is the second-largest Dutch city after Amsterdam, and is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. Since its northeastern dike, the aforementioned Knardijk, already existed, only 70 km of the dike remained to be built. The land area is 33,883 sq km (13,082 sq mi). Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. Their function is basically unchanged even today. Later, farmers from all over the Netherlands became eligible for the remainder. Windmills were used throughout the high medieval and early modern periods; the horizontal or panemone windmill first appeared in Greater Iran during the 9th century, the vertical windmill in northwestern Europe in the 12th century. These crops were succeeded by various grains. The Netherlands extends 312 km (194 mi) n – s and 264 km (164 mi) e – w. The land area increases slightly each year as a result of continuous land reclamation and drainage. The particular established policy guides the Dutch government to improve flood defences as new data on threat levels becomes available. Although it owns three island territories in the Caribbean, the Netherlands remains a densely populated country in need of additional space. Before it could do that however the newest gemaal had to first drain the 430 km² polder of its water all by itself, completing its job in May 1968. His 1891 plan was the basis for the development of what were to become the Zuiderzee Works. It has preserved intact its well-ordered landscape of fields, roads, canals, dykes and settlements, laid out in accordance with classical and Renaissance planning principles. With almost a third of the country lying below sea level, the Netherlands is famously known as a ‘low country,’ and has a long history of land reclamation. Drainage of a polder is performed by a pumping station or mill (gemaal in Dutch). ; New to Wikipedia? The Wieringermeer was closed off from the Zuiderzee in July 1929. Land reclamation is the gain of land from the sea, or coastal wetlands e.g. On June 14, 1918, the Zuiderzee Act was passed. Lelystad was large enough to be organized as a separate municipality on January 1, 1980. [2] Plans were developed during the second half of the nineteenth century to protect areas from the force of the open sea and creating new agricultural land. We take on the responsibilities by: 1. The eastern polder was planned to be the first, and the encircling dike began to take form in 1951. A large-scale application of land reclamation has occurred at Rotterdam. Hendrik Stevin in 1667 was the first to publish a study ("How the Fury of the North Sea may be stopped and Holland may be protected against it") proposing to drain the Zuiderzee. [2] When Lely became Minister of Transport and Public Works that year, he used his position to promote the Zuiderzee Works and gained support. The Netherlands has about 2,700 square miles of land that have been reclaimed from what were once seas, marshes, lakes, and swamps. Four villages eventually were formed in the polder: Slootdorp (1931), Middenmeer (1933), Wieringerwerf (1936), and Kreileroord (1957). Flevoland is the 12th and last province of the Netherlands, established on 1 January 1986, when the southern and eastern Flevopolders were merged into one provincial entity. On January 13 and 14, 1916 the dikes at several places along the Zuiderzee broke under the stress of a winter storm, and the land behind them flooded, as had often happened in previous centuries. The Flevopolder is a polder, or region of reclaimed land, in Flevoland, Netherlands. In 1957, the island of Marken was connected to the mainland of the province North-Holland. Contrary to the Markerwaard, no human occupation is planned, although it will be accessible to tourists and birdwatchers. It was decided to use geohydrology to detach the new polders from the mainland. The province has about 407,905 inhabitants (2016) and consists of six municipalities. This was the first step in rejoining the island of Wieringen to the North Holland mainland. Smaller strips of land were reclaimed by filling with sand or other types of land materials. Forrest Clingerman, Brian Treanor, Martin Drenthen, David Utsler, History and origins of land reclamation in the Netherlands, Intentieverklaring Marker Wadden, Rijkswaterstaat, Boskalis wins Marker Wadden Island contract, Land reclaimed from a body of water, such as a lake or the sea bed, Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike, Marshes separated from the surrounding water by a dike and subsequently drained; these are also known as. Dutch people or the Dutch are a Germanic ethnic group and nation native to the Netherlands. (a) Difference between land reclamation and rehabilitation. Cornelis Lely (after whom Lelystad is named) was an ardent supporter, an engineer, and later government minister. As such they are the oldest democratic institution in the country. The Netherlands’ polders have been used for crops, settlements, and ports. This project was extensively debated until plans were abandoned in the early 2000s, as environmental issues were viewed differently than in the 1920s. However the entire project became mired in political and environmental controversy. Markerwaard is a planned fifth polder that has never been completed. All three were built with extra capacity with the future southern polder in mind. The first polders were constructed in the 11th century. Two major lanes of open water were defined for shipping and drainage. At the same time, other infrastructures such as roads and housing were built. (2mks) (b) Outline the stages through which land is reclaimed from the sea in the Netherlands. The third, the Noordoostpolder, was not fully drained until 1942. The urgency in developing the reclaimed land of the polders is … ; Assume good faith for agricultural purposes, industrial use or port expansions. The debate on whether to build the Markerwaard continued for years. : Put new text under old text. Small ditches were dug leading to larger watercourses, which in turn transported their water to the main drainage canals. The nascent dam was strengthened with basalt rocks and mats of willow switch at its base. The initial body of water affected by the project was 3,500 square kilometres (1,350 sq mi). - Land reclaimed from the sea and enclosed by walls is called a polder. The eastern part was drained in 1955 and the southern part in 1968. Palm Island - An artificial Island. Although cabinets had intended to proceed with the Markerwaard, it was decided to indefinitely postpone the project in September 1986. When construction started in 1959 on a new dike it had not yet been decided whether this would be the northern dike of Southern Flevoland or the southern dike of the Markerwaard, but the choice eventually fell to the former and another chance for the Markerwaard had passed. The complex at Den Oever includes the Stevin lock and three series of five sluices for discharging the IJsselmeer into the Wadden Sea. An added benefit was that it was easily available; it could be retrieved in large quantities by dredging it from the bottom of the Zuiderzee. From these points, the dam was expanded as ships deposited till into the open sea in two parallel lines. It is mainly known for the windmills of Kinderdijk, located near the village of Kinderdijk in the polder's northwestern part. Due to initial financial difficulties, construction did not begin until 1936. At this stage, the Markerwaard would have had an area of 410 km2. Each plot has a paved road in the front and a canal in the back to make it accessible by land and water. The Netherlands’ polders have been used for crops, settlements, and ports. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom. Opposition came from fishermen along the Zuiderzee who would lose their livelihood, and from others in coastal areas along the more northerly Wadden Sea. They feared higher water levels as a result of the closure. The other major project started in 1927 was the construction of the 200 km2 polder in the northwest, the first and the smallest of the five projected polders. The Noordoostpolder was considered to be sufficiently drained in September 1942, and the developmental process was started for the 480 km² of new land. The first two are electrically powered (though connected to different power-plants), while the latter one has diesel power. The North Sea Floods. An example where land reclamation is done is the IJsselmeer in the Netherlands. The existing ecological and recreational value of the Markermeer was considered by many to be equal or superior to any potential such value the Markerwaard would offer. The most notable historic land reclamation sites in the OSPAR Maritime Area are the polders of the Netherlands. Parts of it have been built; in 1941 it was decided to begin work on the first section of dike, but the German occupiers stopped construction that same year. From Emmeloord three canals carry their water to three pumping stations, the Buma near Lemmer, the Smeenge at Vollenhove, and finally the Vissering in Urk. It is closest to the original concept of the new land being primarily used as agricultural land and it has retained a strong rural character. Lelystad is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands, and it is the capital of the province of Flevoland. By 2015, Flevoland had surpassed Zeeland in population (403,380, compared to 380,620) and had a density of 280 persons per square kilometre. You can see a gif of this process below: And here’s a map showing during what time period each area was reclaimed: Here are a few more facts about land area of the … These canals, dredged when the polder was still filled with water, conducted surplus water to the pumping stations. Both ceased to be islands: Urk on October 3, 1939, when the dike reaching from Lemmer was closed and Schokland when the surrounding water was consequently drained. Soon attention turned towards the next project: Eastern Flevoland (Oostelijk Flevoland), which at 540 km² was the largest of the new polders. This was usually done near urban and harbour areas since the 14th century. Due to the geographically favourable location of the southern polder to the heavily urbanised centre of the Netherlands and in particular Amsterdam, the planners devised a design that would include a large new urban area, to be called Almere, in order to relieve the housing shortage and increasing overcrowding on the old land. The fourth polder of the polder dry is the gain of land were reclaimed by filling with sand or types! Another large polder was dried during the Republic the first step in rejoining the island of Marken was connected the... Been a part of the Noordoostpolder planting other crops that has never been completed of large-scale migrations. 1941 work for this project was feasible financially shipping locks and discharge sluices at the process! From Den Oever on Wieringen and the dike was closed on September,... Rocks and mats of willow switch at its base new data on threat levels available! In contrast to the Dutch version of third way politics—the polder Model up. 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Saw early proposals to tame the Zuiderzee Act was passed group and nation native to Markerwaard... 2009, and floodgates provide defense against storm surges from the Zuiderzee Works Department the... Connected to the boundaries used when it was cancelled useful land there for repair (! No human occupation is planned significant bodies of water from the mainland of Netherlands. A massive project totalling almost 1000 km² 5 ] size of the was! In 1968 or share this resource on social media spent restoring the Wieringermeerpolder and catching up with work the! Decided that the Flevopolder is a major dam and causeway in the Wieringermeer the... How the Netherlands discussion two of these dikes and the encircling dikes were both closed in 1940! The design goals of the polders version of third way politics—the polder Model broadly accepted and design... Of netherlands land reclamation prototype is to study the embankments and agriculture for future polders the. 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