From Saskatchewan and Ontario R. conicus was moved and released into the USA, in Virginia and Montana, in 1969. The risks of the introduction and spread of R. conicus to other regions is limited, as it is specific to a few genera of host plants and has only left its native range through deliberate release as a biological control agent. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Carduus nutans L. and Carduus acanthoides L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. When present in high densities R. conicus may also impact native insects in the capitula of the native thistles (Tatyana and Louda, 2011). Description. Alonso-Zarazaga MA, Talamelli F, 2011. Desrochers A M, Bain J F, Warwick S I, 1988. Other insects in this community tend to be active later in the flowering periods, but competition in the captula is quite intense. Indeed, it appears that R. conicus lays more eggs on early capitula than the individual captulum can support, as in the native range parasitoids often kill a proportion of eggs; however, this over-laying of eggs can mean that capitula in the exotic range may wilt under the attack levels of R. conicus, leaving all larvae dead (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012). Carduus nutans L., nodding thistle and C. acanthoides L., plumeless thistle (Compositae). It’s a small weevil with some big names – the Thistle Head Weevil and the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (NTRB) (Wikipedia defines “receptacle” as “the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow”). > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), This insect has been introduced into three new continents outside its native range, and redistribute, NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Populations of the weevil from south-west France were released against spear thistle Cirsium vulgare in the state of Victoria in Australia in 1989, but establishment has been poor since (Sagliocco et al., 2012). Host utilization of native Cirsium thistles (Asteraceae) by the introduced weevil Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Ecology, 76(1):229-245, Louda SM, Potvin MA, Collinge SK, 1990. Population growth of Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on two species of native thistles in Prairie. There are four larval instars which feed and pupate internally in the capitulum, in a hard black ovoid cell that resembles a gall. Therefore the native thistles most impacted on by R. conicus tend to be those that flower early in the growing season. by Wilson, B. J.\Swarbrick, J. T.]. R. conicus lays frass-covered eggs on the exterior involucral bracts of immature inflorescences of its host. Susceptibility of these species to R. conicus is related to a) their proximity to exotic host thistle populations on which this weevil is found, and b) the degree to which flowering phenology is synchronous with the reproductive cycle of R. conicus (Russell et al., 2007). Riveredge December Membership Details Here. See Nodding thistle crown weevil, Green thistle beetle, Californian thistle stem miner. It is not a regulated pest in any country of introduction. The size of these economic benefits has not been quantified financially for any of these countries; however, the success of control due to other agents in Australia has been estimated at $69M for whole of life (Page and Lacey, 2006). Over all length 4 - 7mm. They also argued that the Mediterranean group matches the morphological descriptions and climatic distributions of R. oblongusCapiomont (1873) and therefore that the status of this species needs further consideration. The effective control of the thistle Carduus nutans will have generated significant social benefits for the farmers this weed was preventing from maintaining a viable livestock business. The negative impacts of this insect are restricted to North America as this is the only continent with native (or commercial) plants that are susceptible to attack. A thistle head weevil Rhinocyllus conicus that feeds on Carduus pycnocephalus has also been shown to feed on cotton thistle. 110 (2), 181-191. Of these species, only R. oblongus is sympatric with R. conicus in the latter’s native range (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984), and may indeed be a subspecies (Klein and Seitz, 1994). Environmental Entomology, 39(6):1858-1865. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/0046225x/v39n6/s20.pdf?expires=1297915494&id=0000&titleid=10265&checksum=C82D50039445B003B3FF015662BE54CC, Wilson RC, Andres LA, 1986. The key to successful musk thistle control is to prevent seed production. What a journey! The known distribution of R. conicus does not perfectly match the distribution of its main host plants in its native range, which suggests some apparent gaps in its native range may simply be because the host has been recorded but the pest has not. Weed Science, 25(3):288-292, Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1978. 3. Geographic differentiation between populations of Rhinocyllus conicus Frölich (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): concordance of allozyme and morphometric analysis. Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Subfamily Hyperinae. ©Loke T. Kok/Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US. In regions other than North America, no vulnerable native or economically important plants occur within the host range of R. conicus. Establishment of Rhinocyllus conicus on milk thistle in southern California. As they are strong fliers, in spring they relocate their host plants and start feeding externally as their ovaries mature and they prepare to initiate oviposition on the first captiula to form. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Females often lay over 2000 eggs with the subsequent larval feeding stimulating the plant to form a multi-branched growth habit. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3083.pdf, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Females lay between 100 and 200 eggs, two to five at a time, on the bracts of the developing thistle flower buds https://bugguide.net/node/view/487333/bgimage, and then top each egg with frass (bug poop) (alternatively, some sources say she caps the eggs with chewed-up plant material). by Driesche R, Van Blossey B, Hoddle M, Lyon S, Reardon R]. 411-414. 248-251. Spraying after plants have bloomed is ineffective in killing the plant. 2010), Based on impact on native thistles (Louda et al. In its exotic range R. conicus has also attracted parasitoids (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984; Wilson and Andres, 1986), but at quite low rates. Fi… http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3285.pdf. Overall, R. conicus was less effective in Australia due to asynchrony with its host. A black beetle with a pattern of pale, patchy hairs on its elytra. This can have a direct impact on population density of the affected species when they are seed limited (Louda et al., 1997). They are dark/black in color, but freshly-emerged individuals are mottled with a coat of short black and yellowish hairs that makes them look like they’re dusted with pollen. This was followed up by an active redistribution process that lasted until 2001 and is now distributed over the range of Onopordum thistles in eastern Australia. Weed Science, 45(4):534-537, Gassmann A, Kok L-T, 2002. In the Mediterranean region, where R. conicus also uses the hosts C. pycnocephalus, C. tenuiflorus and S. marianum, the hot dry summer means the hosts have a relatively early, but shorter flowering period, meaning R. conicus starts ovipositing earlier than in temperate regions, but only has time for one generation before their hosts stop flowering and adults need to seek aestivation sites. A sixth species, R. inquilinus Gyll., described from Finland, appears to be a small individual of R. conicus (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984). Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 184-189, Sauer SA, Bradley KL, 2008. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. As they feed, frass that collects inside the flower head is mixed with masticated plant material to form a stiff chamber that becomes the pupal case. 1990), Based on impact on native thistle in controlled studies, not natural populations (Wiggins et al. 68 (4), 1053-1068. North America has about 90 species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium (USDA, 2013). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. It was introduced to control the alien and invasive Nodding/Musk/Russian thistle (Carduus nutans) and a few of its relatives, and now it’s at home in pastures and grasslands and road edges over much of North America. Interspecific competition between Rhinocyllus conicus and Urophora solstitialis, two biocontrol agents released in Australia against Carduus nutans. 36 (1), 77-84. http://sswe.tamu.edu/ DOI:10.3958/059.036.0107, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 24 (4), 204. http://www.benhs.org.uk. The Thistle Head Weevil In Alabama, the thistle head weevil is very host specific. Two species of weevil are used for biological control of musk thistles. R. conicus is attacked by many different species of parasitoid in its native range (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984). In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on biological control of weeds, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 19-26 January 1996 [ed. Berlin, Germany: Dr W. Junk, Cullen J, Sheppard AW, 2012. \Hoddle, M. \Lyon, S. \Reardon, R.]. In 1989 Australia released three populations of R. conicus, from New Zealand, southern France and Italy, into the state of New South Wales to counter C. nutans there (Woodburn and Cullen, 1993; 1995; Cullen and Sheppard, 2012), but only the New Zealand and French populations spread widely. Like the Thistle tortoise beetle, of very recent BOTW fame, the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (Rhinocyllus conicus) is not originally from these parts; it hails from Eurasia and North Africa. Zwölfer and Harris (1984) considered that day-length determines second generations, so that new adults experiencing increasing daylength will start a second generation on flower heads of their host (mainly Carduus nutans) which developed later in the season. While most plants had musk thistle weevil egg masses, I only found one plant showing this damage. Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). NODDING THISTLE THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BOOK May 2008 TE WHAKAPAU TARU – ISBN 0 – 478 – 09306 – 3 NODDING THISTLE CROWN WEEVIL Trichosirocalus horridus The history of nodding thistle crown weevils in New Zealand Nodding thistle crown weevils are native to Europe, but they were imported by the DSIR in (Louda et al., 1990; Arnett and Louda, 2001), C. undulatum Nutt. Environmental Entomology, 14(4):433-436, Harris P, 1981. It is now listed as invasive itself in several states and is barred from interstate shipment. Biological control in the western United States, 3361 [ed. > 10°C, Cold average temp. There are three insects that are considered biological control methods at this time. Biological Control, 55(2):79-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WBP-50KWFY0-1&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2010&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236716%232010%23999449997%232353748%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6716&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=11&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=78efe49241aa2b1324dbea78e84c1945&searchtype=a, Desrochers AM, Bain JF, Warwick SI, 1988. Eat the thistle head weevil ( Rhinocyllus conicus ( Froelich ), 77-84. http:,! The newly-minted adult lingers in its protective case for a while before exiting the flower heads that susceptible. Thistles are invasive, noxious weeds in Australia are found ( see Hosts/Species Affected ), had...:707-726, Sheppard AW, 2012 JP, 1994 Bradley, 2008 ) are ready lay! Lt, 1982 ) also found eggs on or near the bracts on a native plant well as... Rosette moth lay eggs and then die host plants are serious weeds on by conicus... 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