It is probably the most loathed about insect ever present. At the apical end of the maxilla are attached galea and lacinia, the former functions like a cover and the latter is toothed and is used for chewing food. Labium - the lower cover, often referred to as the lower lip. The housefly is a typical sponging insect. All the components of the mouthparts are present without any modification. Insect Body Parts And Their Functions. This is also called lower lip. They also may be adapted for feeding externally on skin, sloughed skin scales, hair, or feathers. You On the other hand, even structures that physically are almost identical, and share almost identical functionality as well, may not be homologous; their analogous functions and appearance might be the product of convergent evolution. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living Neopteran insects. But the fact remains that cockroaches have inhabited the earth for the past 300 million years and continue to be present on earth.Read along to know more about the external morphology and internal anatomy of a cockroach which belongs to the phylum Arthropoda.The common cockroach is scientifically known by the name Periplaneta americana. Common in phytophagous groups inhabiting open habitats (Thysanura, cockroaches, mantids, phytophagous beetles). They are used to steady and manipulate the food. 2.2A). There are five different structures which are used for the initial collection and processing of food:-. Cd - cardo (plural cardines) Ga - galea Gls - glossa (tongue) Lbl - labellum LbPlp - labial palpus The earliest insects had chewing mouthparts. Dissection of Nervous System 4. After Michener (1974, fig. Primitive condition in Insecta. Saliva containing anticoagulants, is injected into the food item and blood sucked out, each through different tubes. Some insects do not have chewing mouthparts as adults but do chew solid food when they feed while they still are larvae. So the mouthparts of the cockroach help in ingestion and are known as chewing type of mouthparts. The mouth parts of the cockroach help in 'biting and chewing' its food. These mouthparts help the cockroach to bite and chew on … The thorax is covered by a large plate (the pronotum), which extends partly over the head. Each maxilla consists of two parts, the proximal cardo (plural cardines), and distal stipes (plural stipites). [9], Head, Mandibles, and unusual Labium of Dragonfly Nymph (viewed from below), Insect mouthparts - Amateur Entomologists' Society (AES), Structure and function of insect mouthparts, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Insect_mouthparts&oldid=992436193, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 07:25. Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding. the cockroach body. The food channel draws liquid and liquified food to the oesophagus by capillary action. • … This section deals only with insects that feed by sucking fluids, as a rule without piercing their food first, and without sponging or licking. See also mechanism of folding of the mouthparts. Maxillae - 'pincers' which are less powerful than the mandibles. To some extent the maxillae are more mobile than the mandibles, and the galeae, laciniae, and palps also can move up and down somewhat, in the sagittal plane, both in feeding and in working, for example in nest building by mud-dauber wasps. In some ants and termites, the mandibles also serve a defensive function (particularly in soldier castes). Identifying Cockroach Species. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) has “generalized” mouthparts. This insect is omnivorous and its mouthparts are well suited to chewing on a wide variety of food items. Two pairs of membranous wings when present. Compound eyes and 2 simple ocelli like spots. Midgut- It is also known as mesenteron or ventriculus. Most of the time they are folded behind the head and held together. In order of appearance, from anterior to posterior, chewing mouthparts consists of a single labrum (upper lip). 3. 1.6) . The defining feature of the order Hemiptera is the possession of mouthparts where the mandibles and maxillae are modified into a proboscis, sheathed within a modified labium, which is capable of piercing tissues and sucking out the liquids. The 'primitive' arrangement of mouthparts is seen in the cockroach - here they are used for biting. 2. Additional functions, like defense, brood care, and male-male competition, modified the mouthparts in some insects. Typical examples are adult moths and butterflies. Cockroach mouth parts The remaining three pairs of cephalic appendages are small and located around the mouth. Insect mouthparts show a multitude of different functional mechanisms across the wide diversity of species considered insects. Each cockroach has eyes, a mouth, salivary glands, antennae, brain, heart, colon, reproductive system, mid-guts, legs, esophagus, gastric caecea, fat bodies and malpighian tubules. Specialization has mostly been for piercing and sucking, although a range of specializations exist, as these modes of feeding have evolved a number of times (for example, mosquitoes and aphids (which are true bugs) both pierce and suck, however female mosquitoes feed on animal blood whereas aphids feed on plant fluids. They have a three segmented palp which is also sensory. Mouthparts of parasitic arthropods are typically adapted for feeding on host body fluids, particularly blood but also lymph, skin secretions, and tears. Like the mandibles, maxillae are innervated by the subesophageal ganglia. The mouthparts are well de- veloped in cockroaches. Insect mouthparts. If you continue to use this site we'll assume that you're happy with this. Two sets of muscles move the mandibles in the coronal plane: abductor muscles move insects' mandibles apart (laterally); adductor muscles bring them together (medially). The labium is attached at the rear end of the structure called cibarium, and its broad basal portion is divided into regions called the submentum, which is the proximal part, the mentum in the middle, and the prementum, which is the distal section, and furthest anterior. In these insects, the labium folds neatly beneath the head and thorax, but the insect can flick it out to snatch prey and bear it back to the head, where the chewing mouthparts can demolish it and swallow the particles.[2]. The antennae – can be found on top of the insect’s head. These palps serve as organs of touch and taste in feeding and in the inspection of potential foods and/or prey. [6], The wild silk moth (Bombyx mandarina) is an example of an insect that has small labial palpi and no maxillary palpi.[7]. Chewing & Biting Type: The basic and most primitive type of mouthparts present in grasshopper, cockroach and beetles. Orientation of the mouthparts: • Hypognathous. Unlike sucking organs in other orders of insects, the Lepidopteran proboscis can coil up so completely that it can fit under the head when not in use. Some of today’s more “advanced” insects have mouthparts that have become adapted for ingesting liquid food. The labrum forms the main feeding tube, through which blood is sucked. Situated beneath (caudal to) the mandibles, paired maxillae manipulate and, in chewing insects, partly masticate, food. It covers the mouth cavity from above. Hindgut is differentiated into three regions viz., ileum, colon and rectum. A chewing insect has a pair of mandibles, one on each side of the head. The basic segmental character of the mouthparts is most apparent in insects that bite off fragments of food and then chew it before ingesting it (Fig. The moths and butterflies are major examples of such adaptations. Functions of the mouth parts: The labium typically is a roughly quadrilateral structure, formed by paired, fused secondary maxillae. Like most external features of arthropods, the mouthparts of hexapoda are highly derived. As is usually the case with insects, there are variations: some moths, such as species of Serrodes and Achaea do pierce fruit to the extent that they are regarded as serious orchard pests. All but a few adult Lepidoptera lack mandibles (the superfamily known as the mandibulate moths have fully developed mandibles as adults), but also have the remaining mouthparts in the form of an elongated sucking tube, the proboscis. Also learn about:- 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: Dissection: Hold the […] Its function is to push the masticated food into the mouth. Most insects have 6 legs and so do cockroaches. The hypopharynx is a somewhat globular structure, located medially to the mandibles and the maxillae. Specializations are generally described thereafter. Mouth parts of cockroach Ventrally, an opening called mouth is present on the head that remains surrounded by the mouth parts consisting of a pair of mandibles, first maxillae, labium or fused second maxillae, hypopharynx and labrum. Many insects take in liquid food. During feeding, however, it extends to reach the nectar of flowers or other fluids. Each mouthpart pair … Insect mouthparts are derived from the appendages of four of the segments forming the insect head. It actually represents the fused pair of ancestral second maxillae. Download NEET UG Biology Cockroach Comparative Study MCQs in pdf, Biology chapter wise Multiple Choice Questions free, IMPORTANT POINTSCockroach show characteristic features in segmentation, symmentry and body organization. Insect Mouthparts Examine the head of a live cockroach (Periplaneta americana, Blaberus spp., or Gromphadorhina portentosa) under the lower power of the dissecting microscope. It is the primitive type of mouth part and consists of the following parts. This they do mainly in opening and closing their jaws in feeding, but also in using the mandibles as tools, or possibly in fighting; note however, that this refers to the coronal plane of the mouth, not necessarily of the insect's body, because insects' heads differ greatly in their orientation. At the apex of each stipes are two lobes, the inner lacinia and outer galea (plurals laciniae and galeae). Dissection of Reproductive System. 1). All cockroaches have the following characteristics: Oval and flattened shape. Insect mouth parts show many cases of parallel evolution, the same end being independently achieved along similar, but not identical lines. In female mosquitoes, all mouthparts are elongated. The details of the labrum, mandibles, maxillae, labium, and hypopharynx, characteristic of different suborders of Blattodea and some families of Blaberoidea, were revealed. 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